Том 4

About Atlas

English summary

Volume 4 "History. Culture" is a component part of the National Atlas of Russia, established as the official state publication in accordance with the instructions of the Government of the Russian Federation dated 26th May, 2000. No AG-P9 14991.

The volume is intended for a wide use in scientific, educational, managerial and other activities. Its main goal is to reveal consistently the course of the historical process of the development of Russia from the ancient times up to the present time, represent the spatio-temporal information on natural and cultural heritage of the country.

The volume contains 496 pages of maps, text and illustrative material, which are grouped into 2 sections "History "and "Culture".

Section "History" consists of 14 subsections, formed in chronological order.

Subsection "Ancient culture" is dedicated to the first stage in the development of mankind - primitive communal system, covering an extensive period of time - from the moment of human’s appearance (more than 2.5 million years ago until the formation of the class societies). This period is represented by maps of palaeolithic, mesolithic, neolithic and eneolithic ages, which shows the placement of primitive people parking, development of territories, favorable for people’s life, instruments of labour of a man, and their improvement with the change of people’s activity character.

Subsection "Early iron age and Great migration of peoples" is represented by maps of early iron age in Northern Eurasia in the 1st millennium b.c. Considerable attention is devoted to the theme of Great migration of peoples that has changed the ethnic map of Europe radically.

Subsection "Ancient Rus’ in IX - early XIII centuries" reflects the process of Russian state creation. Kiev and Novgorod - two state centers that have formed a single old Russian state at the end of the IX century are displayed on the maps of Ancient Rus', the campaigns of Russian princes in the X- XI centuries are shown; the territory of separate Russian principalities leading isolation policy is marked as well as gradual displacement of Ancient Rus’ center to the east, where the Vladimir-Suzdal principality starts playing a major political role among other principalities.

Subsection "Mongol-Tatar invasion. Struggle for Rus’ independence" is devoted to one of the darkest pages in the history of Rus’. The maps show the direction of the Mongol-Tatar hordes invasion to Rus’, destroyed cities, actions of Russian troops, and largest battles. They also reflect the struggle of Rus’ with Swedish and German invaders, the role of Alexander Nevskiy in the battle of the Neva of 1240, and Chudskoe Ozero of 1242.

Subsection "Unification of Russian lands in the XIV – early XV centuries” pays main attention to the beginning of Moscow rising, struggle of Moscow and Tver principalities for political supremacy in Russia, Moscow's role in collection of Russian lands, in organization of the Mamay defeat at Kulikovo field in 1380.

Subsection "Russia in the second half of the XV-XVI centuries." describes the territory of the Grand duchy of Moscow to 1462, lands included as a compound of Moscow in 1521; provides information on raids of the Mongol-Tatars on Russian lands in the XV century and overthrow of the Tatar yoke in 1480. The maps of the XV century show the territory of a single Russian centralized state, defensive war of the Russian state. The maps contain information on the campaign of Ermak to Siberia, accession of Russia to the Siberian khanate in 1582. The struggle for the expansion of the Baltic demesnes is reflected on the map of the Livonian war caused by failure evoked by an internal struggle in the state. That was caused by the introduction of Ivan the Terrible's oprichnina.

Subsection "Russia in the XVII century" presents the information about the territory of Russia at the beginning and at the end of the XVII century, an administrative-territorial division of the state, economic development, manufactories and small-scale commodity production allocation. The subsection also reflects the events of peasant uprisings of I. Bolotnikov and S. Razin, foreign military intervention of the beginning of the century ("Revolt" (“Smuta”)), war with Poland, Sweden, Turkey, the union of the Left-bank Ukraine and Russia, defense of the south from raids of Crimean Tatars, city uprisings of the XVII century.

Subsection "Russia in the first half of the XVIII century" describes the crucial time in the history of Russia associated with the reforms of Peter the First. The maps provides information in the field of domestic policy: territorial changes of Russia, administrative division of the country, introduced by Peter the First, national population composition of the country; in the field of foreign policy: Northern war of 1700-1721, Iranian campaign of Peter the First in 1722-1723, Russian-Turkish war.

Subsection "Russia in the second half of the XVIII century" includes maps of administrative-territorial division, national composition of Russia and economy. Separate blocks of maps are devoted to Russia’s participation in the Seven Years' War of 1756-1762, Russian-Turkish war of 1768-1774, and 1787-1791, accession of the Crimea, Russian-French war of 1798-1800, and popular movements of the XVIII century.

Subsection "Russia in the first half of the XIX century" reflects the development of Russia under conditions of serfdom. One may see here the maps of territorial changes in Russia, shifts in economic development. Russia lead an active foreign policy, so the maps show the war with France in the 3-rd and 4-th coalitions, Russian-Turkish war of 1806-1812., Crimean war of 1853-1856. Special attention is paid to Patriotic war of 1812 with Russian public movement highlighted.

Subsection "Russia in the second half of the XIX century"   reflects the historical development of the state after serfdom’s fall, which led to acceleration of capitalist industrial production organization, railways construction, and agricultural production growth. The maps give an idea of industry location and its specialization, of changes in land use and socio-political movement that various society layers have joined.

Subsection "Russia in the beginning of XX century"  is aimed at displaying on the maps the entry of Russian capitalism in the imperialist stage, process of economy monopolization, education, banking groups and their relationship with industry, changes in agriculture, including Stolypin's agrarian reforms. Some maps are devoted to political parties’ creation in Russia, activities of country councils, Russian-Japanese war of 1904-1905 that caused social tension escalation in the country and revolution of 1905-1907. As a result of two military blocks confrontation (Triple Alliance and Triple Entente) the First World War was triggered, which course is reflected on special maps. The subsection ends with the maps that reflect the events of the February and October revolutions that led to monarchy overthrow and establishment of Councils authority.

Subsection "Russia in the XX century. The Soviet period" observes the major landmarks in the history of the Russian empire, establishment of soviet power, the Civil war, education and development of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, restoration of destroyed economy in the 1920s, industrialization and collectivization, cultural construction in the USSR in the 1920s-1980s, territorial changes of the USSR in 1941. The Great Patriotic war of 1941-1945 was a severe test for the country. Maps of this period cover in detail the course of military operations on the fronts, work of the rear. The post-war period was aimed at economy recovering and further developing of economy, agriculture and transport. Economic cooperation with the countries-members of the Council for Mutual Economic assistance has developed. At the end of the subsection there is a map of "USSК breakup” in 1991 that caused independent states formation.

Subsection "Russia in the beginning of the XXI century" characterizes the current state of the Russian Federation as a democratic federative law-governed state with a republican form of government, where the head of state is the President of the Russian Federation. Here it is presented the information on geopolitical position of Russia, foreign policy of the state, establishment of market economy and socio-economic development of the country.

Section "History" ends with a chronological table of the most important dates and events.

Section "Culture" consists of two parts: " Cultural and natural heritage of Russia" and "Modern culture".

In this section culture is considered as social phenomenon and branch of social sphere, which development was conditioned by historical events.

The main goal of the section "Culture" is to provide a set of up-to-date information and knowledge on cultural and natural heritage of Russia, to show regularities and peculiarities of propagation and development of regional and national cultures, linkages and mechanisms of their interaction and to provide material for development of national and regional programs for protection and use of objects of heritage, as well as for preservation and restoration of historical-cultural and natural environment of the peoples of Russia.

Cultural heritage is one of the most important modern resources that determine socio-economic and socio-cultural development of Russia on the global level. Heritage includes not only artistic value, separate architectural or historical-memorial objects, but also natural environment, historical environment of cities and rural settlements, a special kind of spiritual and material values, embodied in folklore, handicrafts, artistic value and special forms of animate and inanimate nature, that is all that reflects the history of development of nature and culture and is recognized as valuable in scientific research, in economic, aesthetic and educational respect and considered as national treasure.

Subsection "Cultural and natural heritage of Russia" is the largest one and covers a vast list of small-scale maps for the whole territory of Russia up to the plans of cities and schemes of individual objects. Here one may find maps of archaeological monuments under federal protection, monuments of military history, religious architecture, civil, industrial architecture, monumental art, and estate architecture. The maps of folk arts and crafts (processing of wood, metal, stone, bone, glass, weaving, knitting, etc.) are of great interest. Here are the maps of "Russia in the works of Russian writers" and "Russia in the works of Russian painters".

A big attention is paid to the maps of subjects of the Russian Federation and their administrative centers and historical cities and settlements with demonstration of monuments of cultural and natural heritage, in particular of world-wide, federal and regional levels of protection. Among the cultural heritage one may see here monuments of archeology, history, architecture (including the cult of different faiths), monumental art, historical settlements are highlighted, as well as museums, parks and museums-estates, relating to the number of the most valuable objects of cultural heritage, are shown.

On the maps of the subjects of the Russian Federation and their administrative centers a great place is given to the natural heritage sites: state natural reserves, national parks, nature monuments, dendrological parks and botanical gardens, therapeutic and recreational areas and resorts are presented.

Subsection "Modern culture" includes the maps that reflect network and activities of various cultural institutions (by specialization) - theatres, museums, libraries, archives, club institutions, institutions of higher education in the sphere of culture. Statistical information about the work of institutions of culture is presented by cartograms and charts and is supplemented with text and photo illustrations. An integral part of this subsection is the information block, dedicated to the cognitive tourism and excursions, showing the use of heritage objects in the sphere of tourism. The protection history of objects of cultural and natural heritage of Russia and organization of control protection and restoration of heritage sites are highlighted as well.

Section "Culture" ends with a glossary and chronological table of the most important dates and events.